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Python Operators Example

Operators are used to manipulate the values of operands. This tutorial lets you understand the python operators.

Python Operators :

Python supports the following types of operators.

• Arithmetic Operators
• Comparison (Relation) Operators
• Logical Operators
• Bitwise Operators
• Assignment Operators
• Special Operators

Arithmetic Operators :

These operators are used to do the mathematical operators like addition, subtraction, multiplication and Etc.,

+ Add two operands or unary plus.

Subtract right operand or unary minus.

* Multiply two operands.

/ Divide left operand by right.

% Modulus- Reminder of the division of left operand.

// Floor division. Division that results into whole number adjusted in the left in number line.

** Exponent – Left operand raised to the power of right.

Example :

demo.py

```
x=20
y=4
print('x+y : ', x+y)
print('x-y : ', x-y)
print('x*y : ', x*y)
print('x/y : ', x/y)
print('x%y : ', x%y)
print('x//y : ', x//y)
print('x**y : ', x**y)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x+y :  24
x-y :  16
x*y :  80
x/y :  5.0
x%y :  0
x//y :  5
x**y :  160000

Difference between / and // :

```
x=15.0
y=4
print('x/y : ', x/y)
print('x//y : ', x//y)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x/y :  3.75
x//y :  3.0

Using ‘*’ in String :

We can use * operator in string with number, like 4 * Chandra. It will multiplies the string into number of times.

```
>>> a = 2 * 'Chandra'
>>> print(a)
ChandraChandra
>>>

```

Comparison / Relational Operator :

Comparison operators are used to compare the values, it returns either true or false.

> Greater than- True if left operator is greater than right one.

< Less than- True if left operator is less than right one.

== Equals to – True if both operands are equal.

!= Not Equals to – True if both two operands are not equal.

>= Greater than Or Equals to – True if left operator is greater than or equal to right one.

<= Less than or Equals to – True if left operator is less than or equals to right one.

Example :

demo.py

```
x=10
y=12
print('x>y : ', x>y)
print('x<y : ', x<y)
print('x==y : ', x==y)
print('x!=y : ', x!=y)
print('x>=y : ', x>=y)
print('x<=y : ', x<=y)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x>y :  False
x<y :  True
x==y :  False
x!=y :  True
x>=y :  False
x<=y :  True

Comparing Strings :

We can use strings in comparison operators in python like below.

```
x='chandra'
y='chandra'
print('x>y : ', x>y)
print('x<y : ', x<y)
print('x==y : ', x==y)
print('x!=y : ', x!=y)
print('x>=y : ', x>=y)
print('x<=y : ', x<=y)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x>y :  False
x<y :  False
x==y :  True
x!=y :  False
x>=y :  True
x<=y :  True

Logical Operators :

Python logical operators are used to do the logical operations on two operands. These operators return either true or false.

and : Returns True if both operands are True.

or : Returns True if either of the operand is True.

not : Returns True if operand is False.

Example :

demo.py

```
x=True
y=False
print('x and y : ', x and y)
print('x or y : ', x or y)
print('x not y : ', not y)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x and y :  False
x or y :  True
x not y :  True

Bitwise Operators :

These operators are used to do the operations on values based on bits.

& : Bit wise AND

| : Bit wise OR

~ : Bit wise NOT

^ : Bit wise XOR

>> : Bit wise right shift

<< : Bit wise left shift

Example :

demo.py

```
x=10
y=4
print('x&y : ', x&y)
print('x|y : ', x|y)
print('~x : ', ~x)
print('x^y : ', x^y)
print('x>>2 : ', x>>2)
print('x<<2 : ', x<<2)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x&y :  0
x|y :  14
~x :  -11
x^y :  14
x>>2 :  2
x<<2 :  40

Bitwise operators internally converts the operand values in the form of binary and performs the operation and gives the values in the form of decimal.

Assignment Operators :

Assignment operators are used to assign the values to the variables. It has both bitwise and arithmetic operators. Below example shows all possible assignment operators in python.

Example :

```
x=10
print('x=10 : ', x)
x+=10
print('x+=10 : ', x)
x-=10
print('x-=10 : ', x)
x*=5
print('x*=5 : ', x)
x**=5
print('x**=5 : ', x)
x/=5
print('x/=5: ', x)
x%=5
print('x%=5 : ', x)
x//=5
print('x//=5 : ', x)
y=20;
y&=10;
print('y&=10 : ', y)
y|=20;
print('y|=10 : ', y)
y^=10;
print('y^=10 : ', y)
y>>=3;
print('y>>3 : ', y)
y<<=3;
print('y<<3 : ', y)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x=10 :  10
x+=10 :  20
x-=10 :  10
x*=5 :  50
x**=5 :  312500000
x/=5:  62500000.0
x%=5 :  0.0
x//=5 :  0.0
y&=10 :  0
y|=10 :  20
y^=10 :  30
y>>3 :  3
y<<3 :  24

So far we have discussed the basic python operators. Apart from these basic operators python provides some special operators which are used to some special cases.

Special Python Operators :

Python supports the two types of special operators.

• Identity Operators
• Membership Operators

Identity Operators :

Identity operators are used to compare the address of the memory locations which are pointed by the operands. Identity operators returns True or False.

is : Returns True – if two operands are identical (refers to the same object).

is not : Returns True – True if operands are not identical (do not refer to the same object).

demo.py

```
x1=5
y1=5
x2='Hello'
y2='Hello'
print("x1 is y1 : ", x1 is y1)
print("x1 is not y1 : ", x1 is not y1)
print("x2 is y2 : ", x2 is y2)
print("x2 is not y2 : ", x2 is not y2)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
x1 is y1 :  True
x1 is not y1 :  False
x2 is y2 :  True
x2 is not y2 :  False

Membership operators :

Membership operators are used to search for a particular element in a string, list, tuple, set and Etc.,

in : Returns True – if value of variable if found in sequence.

not in : Returns True – if value of variable is not found in sequence.

```
x='Hello World'
print('H' in x)
print('H' not in x)
print('Hello' not in x)
print('hello' in x)
print(' ' in x)

```

\$ python3 demo.py
True
False
False
False
True

Happy Learning 🙂